|NP6969||Olean-12-en-28-oicacid, 2,3,23-trihydroxy-, (2a,3a,4a)-||102519-34-6||Inquiry|
Terpenes and terpenoids are aromatic compounds that occur naturally in many plants. Often, they produce characteristic odors (e.g. lavender, pine and orange) and are major components of plant essential oils and resins. Among other things, terpenes serve as natural plant defense mechanisms against insects and pests, deterring predatory insects and animals in some cases and attracting beneficial insects and animals, such as bees, in others. Terpenes have a wide range of uses in everyday life, including food, cosmetics, aromatherapy, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. Many terpenes also have biological activity and are used in traditional Western medicine for medical applications in the treatment of human diseases, including anti-cancer and anti-malarial drugs. Terpene molecules are very small and consist of repeating structural units called isoprene units. Many terpenes act synergistically with other species of terpenes, and some terpenes catalyze or inhibit the formation of different compounds within the plant.
Lauricene is found in hops, thyme, lemongrass and mango. Strains in which lauricene is the primary terpene represent the largest percentage of strains available on the market today.
Commonly found in lemon and other citrus essential oils, limonene is the second most widely distributed terpene in nature.
Terpinolene has a complex sensory profile and its aroma has been described as woody, herbal and floral. It is found in nature in clove flowers, tea tree, apple, cumin and nutmeg.
Alpha pinene, not to be confused with its isomer beta pinene, is found in dill, basil, rosemary and parsley in addition to pine needles and other conifers. Alpha pinene has a variety of benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-anxiety. Alpha pinene's neuroprotective properties may offer additional promise. It may not only be beneficial for a wide range of degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, general dementia, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction and overall memory loss.
Beta gastrodene is found in black pepper and cloves and is used as a flavoring agent to add spicy and herbal flavors. Beta gastrodene is the only terpene known to interact directly with the endocannabinoid system and to produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects via CB2 receptors.
Ocimene exudes a sweet, floral and woody aroma. Basilene is found in a variety of plants, including hops, kumquat, mango, basil, bergamot, lavender, orchids, and pepper, in varying amounts. Basilene is widely used in the perfume industry for its sweet, floral and herbal aroma.
It is not the primary metabolites but the terpenoids in the secondary metabolites that play an important role in plant growth and development. For example, the phytohormone abscisic acid is formed from sesquiterpenes degraded from carotenoid precursors, gibberellins are diterpenes, and oleuropein lactones, which are related to plant growth regulation, are also derived from triterpenes. Solid alcohols are derivatives of triterpenes and are the main components of cell membranes, which interact with phosphate esters and thus have a stabilizing effect on cell membranes, and ubiquinone is involved in respiration. The red, yellow and orange carotenoids are tetraterpenes that function as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and protect photosynthetic tissues from damage by photo-oxidation.