Phenylpropanoids are a variety of organic compounds that are synthesized by plants from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. They get their name from the six-carbon aromatic phenyl and three-carbon propylene tails of coumaric acid, a central intermediate in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The biosynthesis of numerous natural products is produced from 4-coumaroyl coenzyme A, including lignans (precursors of lignin and lignocellulose), flavonoids, isoflavones, coumarins, kinones, stilbene, catechins, and phenylpropanoids. Coumaroyl components are produced from cinnamic acid. Phenylpropanoids are present throughout the plant kingdom and they are essential components of many structural polymers providing UV protection against herbivores and pathogens.
Phenylpropanoids are a naturally occurring class of compounds consisting of a benzene ring with three straight chain carbon linkages (C6-C3 groups). They generally have a phenol structure and are phenolic in nature. In biosynthesis, most of these compounds are formed from manganin through a series of reactions such as deamination and hydroxylation by aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Phenylalanine compounds have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and alkaline repair effects, and have significant improvement effects on diabetes and related diseases, as well as on sexual dysfunction, low learning and memory ability due to physical and mental stress.
Phenylpropanoids can inhibit the level of NO, a cellular inflammatory factor, and thus achieve anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the NO pathway, providing directions for the development of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, mastitis, pharyngitis and/or arthritis.
Angiogenesis is the process of growing new capillaries from existing blood vessels. Angiogenesis is an important factor in the development of tumors. The new blood vessels not only provide nutrients and oxygen to the tumor tissue, but also allow the tumor cells to connect directly with the individual's blood circulation directly, thus providing conditions for malignant metastasis of tumors. Since most of the discovered endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are obtained by genetic engineering, the production process is complicated and expensive. In recent years, many plant secondary metabolites (especially phenylpropanoids) have been found to have significant anti-angiogenic effects, and their simple extraction process and abundant sources are of very excellent research value.
Phenylpropanoids are a group of natural organic compounds with one or several C6-C3 units in the basic parent nucleus, and they are widely found in traditional Chinese medicine, mainly including simple phenylpropanoids, coumarins and lignans. Phenylpropanoids can target HIV-1 RT, inhibit polymerase activity, and also inhibit HIV-1 PR and IN.
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