|NP4220||threo-Guaiacylglycerol β-dihydroconiferyl ether||135820-78-9||Inquiry|
|NP4221||threo-7-O-Methylguaiacylglycerol β-coniferyl ether||150333-85-0||Inquiry|
Lignans are a group of natural organic compounds consisting of two or three molecules of phenylpropyl groups polymerized in different forms, mostly found in angiosperms and gymnosperms. They can be divided into two major groups: compounds consisting of two molecules of phenylpropyl derivatives polymerized through the β-position of their side chains are called lignans. Compounds consisting of one molecule of the side chain of the phenylpropyl group, linked to the benzene ring of another molecule, or two parts linked by oxygen atoms are called neolignans. Lignans are condensed by two molecules of phenylpropyl β-carbon, and then the oxygen-containing groups on the side chain γ-carbon can be mutually dehydrated and condensed to form substituted tetrahydrofuran, hemiacetal, lactone tetrahydronaphthalene or cyclooctene and other structures. So lignans can also be divided into more types. Such as monoepoxy lignan (monoe-poxy lignan), lignanolide (lignanolide), cycloli-gnan (cyclic lignan) and so on.
When we eat lignin-rich foods, healthy bacteria in the gut convert them into a lignin metabolite, enterolone. It circulates in the bloodstream, binds to estrogen receptors and acts like estrogen, thus compensating for the lack of estrogen. However, in the presence of high estrogen levels in the body, they also bind to the receptors while reducing the activity of natural estrogen.
Lignans are phytonutrients with soluble and insoluble fiber. Lignans are antioxidants that also support the immune system. In addition, lignans are very effective in balancing hormone levels in the body. In women, they help balance estrogen levels; in men, they help balance testosterone with DHT and inhibit certain enzymes needed to convert testosterone to DHT. This results in lower DHT levels, which may improve prostate health and may help maintain testosterone levels. In men, women and animals, lignans inhibit the enzyme HSD, which helps lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol. They also have anti-estrogenic effects, which prevent naturally occurring (and sometimes radical) hormones from binding to estrogen receptors and exerting their negative effects. Lignans provide weaker, cleaner estrogen to balance any deficits or surpluses.
Diets rich in plant lignans (whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, fruits and vegetables) have been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the large number of nutrients and phytochemicals found in these foods may contribute to their cardioprotective effects.
Lignans have anti-estrogenic properties that mimic estrogen and bind to estrogen receptors, but they do not have the same antagonistic effects as estrogen. Phytoestrogens are a cleaner form of estrogen, and when more phytoalexins are consumed, more normally occurring (endogenous) estrogen is excreted from the body.
Higher serum enterolactone concentrations (a result of lignan intake) are associated with better prostate health. Enterolactone is produced in the intestine by bacteria that act on lignans.
Lignans have been shown to reduce some early markers of colon health risk in the short term.
Lignans are found in a variety of plant foods, including seeds (flax, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy, sesame), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran (wheat, oats, rye), legumes, fruits (especially berries) ), vegetables and beverages such as tea, coffee and wine.
Flaxseed is by far the richest dietary source of plant lignans and the bioavailability of lignans can be enhanced by crushing or milling flaxseed.